The vine is a climber and gnarled shrub belonging to the family of Vitaceae, and genus Vitis, Vitis vinifera being the most important crop because of the fermentation of fruit wine is obtained.
As a woody plant generally has a very long life and is easy to find centenary vines. Another feature is that it has been able to adapt to different and varied types of terrain on almost everyone. You can stay in production for many years.
Every year a biological cycle that can be influenced in part by environmental conditions and by human action is repeated.
Life cycle of the vine
1. Plant the vine. Sowing. We speak of Vitis vinifera. Within the genus Vitis, it is the one with oenological interest. The essential work of the winemaker is using in its favor, the reproductive impulse of the vine in order to obtain fruit of the highest quality.
2. Growth. As a creeper vine, align their branches so they do not grow in an anarchic way, as to grow freely, fruit production difficult. The branch is the stem or branch of vine stock, from which sprout leaves, tendrils and clusters.
3. Pruning. Avoid anarchic growth of the vine. Pruning regulates the formation of the plant thereby and production.
4. cry. After the winter break (vegetative stop, without leaves), in early spring, the sap bleeding from cuts pruning.
5. fettle. Growth of the branches, green, tender and thin vine sprout. Between March and April the branches sprouting or budding occurs.
Reproductive cycle of the vine
6. Bloom. Top reproductive phase overlaps the growth; It takes place between the months of May and June, lasting about 10 days if the weather is dry and sunny, where pollination is critical to the quantity of the harvest.
7. Envero. Pollinated flowers of beans that develop quickly and changes color (veraison) are formed, the grapes lose chlorophyll that provide the typical green of the first stage and gradually take the black, green-gold final color in white and in blue ink.
8. Maturity. Vintage. The plant stops growing and focuses on the formation of the fruit and seed. Grape in this period increases sugars and flavorings, acids decreases.
9. Leaf fall. After harvest the plant prepares for winter break. The leaves begin to lignify. The few that produce sugars are moved to the trunk and roots serve as a reserve. Finally, the leaves fall.